III. BEHAVIOR OF INPUT PRICES, COST OF PRODUCTION AND
TERMS OF TRADE
Among† the many factors that help† in the formulation of† price support policy, the cost of production is perhaps the most significant. Apart from paid out operational costs including the items of input costs that are actually incurred by the farmers for each of the crops grown by them, the imputed value of family labour, owned value of inputs, rental value of owned land, interest on fixed capital etc. are also carefully considered.† For most of the data requirements, the Commission depends on the Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture who generate statewise estimates of cost of cultivation† of various crops under the Comprehensive Scheme (CS).† The Commission also obtains extensive feed back from state governments and other organisations which provide valuable information on state specific input prices as also estimates of cost of cultivation generated by state governments .† Besides, price indices in respect of some agricultural inputs are obtained from the office of the Economic Adviser, Ministry† of† Industry.
3.2††††††† The cost on account of human labour constitutes a major part in the total cost of cultivation. After the submission of the Commissionís last report on price policy for kharif crops for 2003-04 season, the statutory minimum wages for agricultural labourers have been revised upward in the states of Assam, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and West Bengal. The actual wage rates of agricultural labourers are reported to have increased in most of the states growing kharif crops. According to the data obtained from the Labour Bureau, the average agricultural wage rates, between the kharif seasons of 2002 and 2003 (April to September) are observed to have increased by 1 to 3 per cent in the states of Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh,† whereas average wage rates for agricultural† labour have reportedly increased between 4 to 9 percent in the states of West Bengal, Punjab, Orissa, Maharashtra, Bihar and Assam during the same period.
3.3††††††† The electricity tariffs for irrigation purposes have not been reported to have increased in the major kharif producing states. However, in case of canal irrigation charges, only West Bengal is reported to have increased the same with effect from July, 2003. The prices of other farm inputs as measured by WPI are observed to have increased by 2.71 per cent for electricity for irrigation, 8.26 per cent for lubricants, 2.40 per cent for non-electrical machinery and 6.49 per cent for cattle-feed between January, 2003 and February, 2004. The prices of fodder have however, decreased sharply by 14 per cent during the same period. The prices of HSD as measured by the WPI reached the level of 325.9 in February, 2004 from 282.5 prevailing in January, 2003, registering a sharp increase of 15.36 per cent. (Tables 3.1 & 3.2)
Estimates of Cost of Cultivation and Projected Costs for 2004-05 Season
3.4††††††† After the submission of the Commissionís last report for kharif crops for 2003-04 season, the Directorate of Economics & Statistics (DE&S) has provided the estimates of cost of cultivation/ production of paddy for the latest year of 2001-02 in respect of almost all the major kharif growing states, viz. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The details of the latest available estimated costs of paddy and also those pertaining to the preceding year are presented in Table 3(A) below. The C2 cost of production per quintal is estimated to have increased by 0.5 to 11.4 percent in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Haryana, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. However, there is a substantial increase of 23 percent in Karnataka due to 12 per cent decline in yield. The cost of production is estimated to have declined by 2.9 to 15.8 percent in the states of Bihar, Kerala† and Orissa while for the state of Madhya Pradesh, it has come down by 15.8 percent due to increase in yield. It is observed that between 2000-01 and 2001-02, the C2 cost of cultivation of paddy per hectare is estimated to have increased by 3.3 to 7.3 per cent in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. The increase is observed to be more than 10 per cent in the states of Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal which is in the range of 10.2 to 16 percent, while the cost of cultivation is estimated marginally higher in Bihar, Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the range of 0.27 to 2.80 per cent during the same period. Further details of cost of cultivation/production of paddy pertaining to the latest period and for the preceding year are given in Tables 3.3 and 3.4.
3.5††††††† In order to derive the likely cost of production of paddy for the ensuing crop season (2004-05), the Commission, has, as usual, used the base level CS data pertaining to different states for the latest three year ending 2001-02.† In other words, each of the estimated cost for† 1999-00, 2000-01 and 2001-02 has been projected to 2004-05 and their average taken. For making the projection, a state-specific variable Input Price Index has been constructed to capture the actual movements of input prices between the base year and the year of projection (2004-05). (Table 3.5)
3.6††††††† According to the projections, the per quintal paid-out cost of production of paddy plus imputed cost of family labour (i.e. cost A2+FL) for 2004-05 comes to an average of Rs. 378 for Andhra Pradesh, Rs. 416 for Assam, Rs. 362 for Bihar, Rs. 430 for Haryana, Rs.. 412 for Karnataka, Rs. 438 for Madhya Pradesh, Rs. 413 for Orissa, Rs. 287 for Punjab, Rs. 442 for Tamil Nadu, Rs. 328 for Uttar Pradesh, Rs. 425 for West Bengal and Rs. 633 for Kerala. As against this, the projected C2 cost of production of paddy for these states averages at Rs. 557, Rs. 542, Rs. 505, Rs. 631, Rs. 551, Rs. 627, Rs. 544, Rs. 442, Rs. 589, Rs. 462, Rs. 556 and Rs. 764 per quintal respectively for 2004-05. The weighted average cost of production of paddy for all these states works out to Rs. 384 on cost A2+FL basis, Rs. 531 on cost C2 basis and Rs. 584 per quintal on cost C3 basis. [Table 3(G)]
3.7††††††† From the above, it may be noticed that the average costs of production of paddy are the lowest in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Based on the MSP fixed for paddy (Common) for 2003-04 at Rs. 550 per quintal, both these states command a margin of about 19-24 per cent over C2 costs of production currently being projected. On the other hand, the costs of production of paddy are much on the higher side in Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Kerala. While Madhya Pradesh suffers from extremely low productivity, Keralaís high cost is explained mainly by human labour cost which is the highest in the country. The case of Haryana is strikingly different.† Although Haryanaís total cost of cultivation of paddy per hectare at Rs. 24401 is very close to that of its neighbour, Punjab, it is well known that Haryana produces finer quality of paddy like basmati in a large area which results in much lower yield averaging around 38 quintals per hectare as against 57 quintals obtained in Punjab.
3.8††††††† Although not found strictly comparable because of certain conceptual and methodological differences, the Commission regularly examines the cost data received from some of the state governments and compares them with those made available by the DES for the latest year and also with the projected costs of production of various crops for the ensuing kharif season that are made in the Commission. This exercise is found useful for the purpose of cross-checking of the cost data.
3.9††††††† It may be observed from Table 3(H) that the cost of production of paddy estimated by the state of West Bengal at Rs. 436 per quintal for 2001-02 is lower than that given under CS at Rs. 500 per quintal. In case of Uttar Pradesh, however, the unit cost estimated by the state is much higher partly because of lower average yield considered in the state estimate and also high cost on account of human labour as compared to CS. The estimated cost of production of paddy provided by Gujarat and Maharashtra are much on the higher side. But no comparison is possible because these states are not covered for paddy under the CS.
3.10††††† Punjab has provided cost projections for the year 2004-05 based on their own assessment. After adjusting the projected costs to some extent with a view to making them comparable with the Commission† concepts and methodologies, it is observed that the adjusted projection for Punjab at Rs. 572 is higher than the Commission projection of Rs. 442 per quintal. As mentioned in the Commissionís earlier reports, this difference is mainly attributed to much higher rental value of land considered by the state. The cost projected for paddy by the state of Orissa at Rs. 546 per quintal is almost the same as that projected by the Commission ACP at Rs. 544 per quintal. [Table 3(I)]
3.11††††† For cotton, the estimates of cost of cultivation/production for 2001-02 have become available in respect of all the growing states. The data presented in Table 3(B) show that the cost of cultivation per hectare is estimated to have increased in 2001-02 as compared to the preceding year in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. This hike being very steep in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. The unit cost of production of cotton has gone up in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan. In Madhya Pradesh it has declined marginally. (Tables 3.6 & 3.7)
3.12††††† Following the same methodology as used in the case of paddy, the cost A2+FL of cotton is projected for 2004-05 to an average of Rs. 1185 for Andhra Pradesh, Rs. 1332 for Gujarat, Rs. 1715 for Karnataka, Rs. 1747 for Madhya Pradesh, Rs. 1765 for Maharashtra, Rs. 1773 for Punjab, Rs. 1019 for Rajasthan and Rs. 1617 per quintal for Tamil Nadu. The corresponding cost C2 per quintal is projected at Rs. 1776, Rs. 1643, Rs. 2229, Rs. 2463, Rs. 2216, Rs. 2316, Rs. 1455 and Rs. 2438 per quintal respectively. The weighted average cost of production of cotton for 2004-05 is placed at Rs. 2021 per quintal on cost C2 basis and Rs. 2223 on cost C3 basis. [Table 3(G)]
3.13††††† As against the above cost estimates under CS survey, the estimates of cost of production of cotton for 2001-02 have been provided by the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. The cost estimate of Gujarat at Rs. 1441 per quintal is much lower than the corresponding CS estimates made available for Gujarat. The estimate provided by the state of Maharashtra. is almost same as that made available under CS. The states of Maharashtra and Punjab have given the projected cost of cotton for the year 2004-05.† This projected cost provided by Maharashtra is on the higher side as compared to the Commissionís projection for the year 2004-05.† However, after adjustment as per the Commissionís concept and methodology it works out lower than the Commissionís projected cost.†† Similarly, after adjustment, the projected cost provided by Punjab is at Rs. 2436 per quintal against the Commissionís projection at Rs. 2316 per quintal.† This higher value can be mainly attributed to the higher rental value of land considered by the states. [Tables† 3(H) & 3(I)]
3.14††††† Jowar, bajra, maize and ragi are the major kharif coarse cereals produced in the country. For jowar, estimates of cost of cultivation/production are available for 2001-02 in respect of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. It may be observed from Table 3(C) that between 2000-01 and 2001-02, the cost of cultivation for jowar per hectare is estimated to have increased in all the states for which data are made available. For bajra the cost of cultivation is estimated to have increased in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh, for maize in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh and for ragi in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
3.15†† Following the methodology† adopted in the case of paddy and cotton, the projected cost of cultivation (A2+FL) for jowar for 2004-05 for the states of† Karnataka,† Madhya Pradesh,† Maharashtra, Rajasthan† and Tamil Nadu is Rs. 544, Rs. 425, Rs. 497, Rs. 450 and Rs. 477 per quintal respectively.† While cost of production per quintal on C2 basis for these states arrived at Rs. 717, Rs. 605, Rs. 629, Rs. 595 and Rs. 588 respectively. The weighted average A2+FL and C2 cost of production for jowar have been projected at Rs. 499 and Rs. 644 per quintal respectively.† Projected cost of production for bajra for the year 2004-05 for the states of Gujarat, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan on A2+FL basis is Rs. 507, Rs. 490, Rs. 320, Rs. 520, Rs. 441 per quintal while the† C2 cost of production per quintal† for these states is Rs.† 621, Rs. 665, Rs. 449, Rs. 640 and Rs. 556 respectively .† The weighted average A2+FL and C2 costs of production for the year 2004-05 for bajra are at Rs. 450 and Rs. 575 per quintal† respectively . The A2+FL projected cost of production of maize for the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh is Rs. 353, Rs. 422, Rs. 432, Rs. 309, Rs. 310, Rs. 646 and Rs. 537 per quintal respectively, while the projected C2 cost of production for these states works out to Rs. 489, Rs. 553, Rs. 600, Rs. 422, Rs. 527, Rs. 794 and Rs. 700 per quintal respectively. The weighted average A2+FL and C2 costs of production of maize on the basis of these costs are Rs. 416 and 568 per quintal respectively.†† A2+FL and C2 projected cost for ragi for the year 2004-05 for the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu work out to† Rs. 658 & Rs. 620 and Rs. 798 & Rs. 824 respectively, the weighted average cost of production of ragi comes to† Rs. 652 on cost A2+FL basis and Rs. 802 on cost C2 basis respectively.†[Table 3(G)]
3.16†††† The cost estimates for jowar and bajra have been made available by the states of Maharashtra,† Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh for the year 2001-02. Maharashtra has provided an estimate of Rs. 443 per quintal which is much lower than the CS estimate at Rs. 629 per quintal. Such comparison can not be made for Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat in the absence of CS data for the crop. Maharashtra† has also given the projected cost figures for jowar and bajra for the year 2004-05 at Rs. 800 per quintal and Rs. 929 quintal† respectively. However, when these have been adjusted using the Commissionís concepts and methodologies, they worked out to Rs. 579 and Rs. 682 per quintal respectively. The Commissionís† projections for jowar and bajra for the year are Rs. 629 and Rs. 640 per quintal respectively. [Tables 3(H) & 3(I)]
3.17††††† For pulses, the latest available estimates of cost of cultivation/production for major kharif pulses of tur (arhar), moong and urad are presented in Table 3 (D). It may be observed that the cost of cultivation per hectare is estimated to have been higher in the range of 4 to 28 per cent during 2001-02 over the level prevailed a year before in the case of tur for the states in respect of which data were† made available.† The projected† per quintal cost of production (A2+FL) of tur for 2004-05 averaged at† Rs.1467 for Andhra Pradesh , Rs. 814 for Gujarat, Rs. 1295 for Karnataka, Rs. 770 for Madhya Pradesh, Rs. 676 for Maharasthra, Rs. for 944 for Orissa and Rs. 558 for Uttar Pradesh and the corresponding cost C2 at Rs. 2005, Rs. 1269, Rs. 1767, Rs. 1215, Rs. 1027, Rs. 1381 and Rs. 1086 per quintal respectively with the weighted average cost arrived at Rs. 822 and Rs. 1262 per quintal on A2+FL and C2 basis respectively.† As regards moong cost A2+FL per quintal is† projected at Rs. 1222, Rs. 1333, Rs. 1383, Rs. 1483 for the states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharasthra, Orissa, Rajasthan respectively and cost C2 per quintal at Rs.1824, Rs. 1698, Rs. 1912, Rs. 1836 for these states respectively.† The weighted average cost for moong for the same year work out to Rs. 1335 and Rs. 1768 per quintal respectively for cost A2+FL and C2. The projected cost A2+FL for urad for the states of Andhra Pradesh , Mahrashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh have been projected at Rs. 820, Rs. 1382, Rs. 976, Rs. 1544, Rs. 1275, Rs. 775 per quintal respectively.† The corresponding C2 cost of production for these states work out to Rs. 1363, Rs. 1730, Rs. 1498, Rs. 2022, Rs.1799, Rs. 1214 per quintal respectively with weighted average A2+FL and C2† cost being placed at Rs. 1060, Rs.1528 per quintal respectively.†[Table 3(G)]
3.18††††† For all the kharif pulses, the estimates of costs have been provided by the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh for the year 2001-02. For moong, urad in Maharashtra and tur in Uttar Pradesh, these estimates were lower than the CS estimates for the same year. The projected costs for all the pulses for the year 2004-05 as made available by the state of Orissa are lower than the Commissionís projection. However, the costs as projected by Maharashtra for the same are higher than the projections made by the Commission.††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† † [Tables 3(H) & (I)]
3.19††††† The latest estimates of cost of cultivation/production for kharif oilseeds for 2000-01 have become available in respect of most of the producing states (Table-3 E). For groundnut, the cost of cultivation per hectare for 2001-02 is estimated higher than that for the previous year in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra. As regards soyabean and sunflower, the cost of cultivation has gone up in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra respectively.
††††††††††† Following the latest methodology, the estimated costs of kharif oilseeds for the latest 3 years. ending 2001-02 have been projected for the ensuing crop season of 2004-05. Accordingly, the projected cost A2+FL cost of production for groundnut is averaged at Rs. 1316 per quintal for Andhra Pradesh, Rs. 930 for Gujarat, Rs. 1239 for Karnataka, Rs. 1382 for Maharashtra and Rs. 1179 per quintal for Tamil Nadu. The cost C2 cost of production for these states work out to Rs. 1726, Rs. 1177, Rs. 1572, Rs. 1678 and Rs. 1552 per quintal respectively. The weighted average cost for groundnut works out to Rs. 1507 on cost C2 basis and Rs. 1658 per quintal on cost C3 basis. For soyabean, the projected cost A2+FL work out to Rs. 618, Rs. 700, Rs. 682 per quintal respectively for the states for Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan while the C2 cost work out to Rs. 884, Rs. 886 and Rs. 853 per quintal respectively with the weighted average cost at Rs. 646 and Rs. 882 per quintal respectively on cost A2+FL and C2 basis.† The projected costs for sunflower for 2004-05 for states of Karnataka and Maharashtra are placed at Rs. 1235 and Rs. 1429 per quintal on cost A2+FL basis and Rs. 1555 and Rs. 1668 per quintal on C2 basis.† The weighted average cost on A2+FL and C2 basis work out to Rs. 1300 and Rs. 1593 per quintal respectively.† For sesamum, the average projected A2+FL costs are Rs. 1629, Rs.1404, Rs. 1991, Rs. 1466, Rs. 1065 per quintal and the corresponding C2 costs work out to Rs. 2106, Rs. 1966, Rs. 2810, Rs. 2199, Rs. 1954 per quintal for the states for Gujarat, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh respectively with the weighted average A2+FL and C2 cost at Rs. 1596 and Rs. 2221 per quintal respectively. The C2 cost of production of nigerseed in respect of Orissa has been projected to an average of Rs. 1198 per quintal. [Table 3(G)]
3.20††††† As against the estimated costs provided under CS, the estimates provided by the state governments are observed to be lower in Maharashtra for groundnut. The state estimate of groundnut in Gujarat at Rs.† 1295 per quintal is much higher than the corresponding CS estimates mainly due to the much lower yield estimated by the state as compared to the CS yield. As regards sunflower the estimates given by the state of Maharashtra is much lower than the CS estimates. In the case of sesasum, the state estimates given by Gujarat is lower than the CS estimate.†[Tables 3(H) & 3(I)]
3.21††††† The latest estimates of cost of cultivation/production for VFC tobacco have been made available by the DES which pertains to Andhra Pradesh for the year 2001-02. Karnataka, the only other important VFC tobacco producing state, is not covered under the C.S.† The data presented in Table 3(F) show that cost of cultivation is estimated at Rs. 42523 per hectare. The cost of production of tobacco in respect of Andhra Pradesh has been projected to an average of Rs. 3014 and Rs. 3835 per quintal on† cost A2+FL and C2 basis, respectively.†(Table 3(G)]
3.22††††† The inter-sectoral terms of trade between agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, defined in ordinary parlance as the ratio of total prices received by the agricultural sector to the total prices paid by it to non-agricultural sectors, is one of the important economic indicators to get a perception as to how agricultural sector as a whole has either gained or lost in the process of economic growth.† The Commission has been regularly monitoring the changes in the inter-sectoral terms of trade, (the base 1971-72) since 1980-81 using its own methodology and data base.† However, from 2001-02 kharif report, the Commission has been using the new index of terms of trade as compiled by the Directorate† of Economics and Statistics following the methodology evolved in 1995 (base year 1988-91= 100) by a Task Force headed by Prof. A.S. Kahlon, former Chairman, CACP.
†(Appendix† - I)
3.24††††† The index of input output price parity (IIOP) is derived by the Commission based on the components of new series of ITT.† This is done by deriving the index of prices paid for agricultural inputs using the elements of†† index of prices paid viz. the indices of intermediate consumption and of capital formation, and comparing it with index of prices received, available from ITT.
3.25††††† Akin to ITT, which remained unfavourable to agriculture during the eighties and then turned favourable to agriculture in the nineties, the price parity also remained unfavourable to agriculture in eighties and†† subsequently recovered in early 1990ís.† However, the index of input-output price parity remained lower than hundred since 1994-95. †††††† (Appendix - II)